Emanuele RicciEmanuele Ricci

Emanuele Ricci

12 min read

Ethernaut Challenge #24 Solution — Double Entry Point

This is Part 24 of the "Let’s play OpenZeppelin Ethernaut CTF" series, where I will explain how to solve each challenge.

The Ethernaut is a Web3/Solidity based wargame created by OpenZeppelin. Each level is a smart contract that needs to be 'hacked'. The game acts both as a tool for those interested in learning ethereum, and as a way to catalogue historical hacks in levels. Levels can be infinite and the game does not require to be played in any particular order.

Challenge #24: Double Entry Point

This level features a CryptoVault with special functionality, the sweepToken function. This is a common function to retrieve tokens stuck in a contract. The CryptoVault operates with an underlying token that can't be swept, being it an important core's logic component of the CryptoVault, any other token can be swept.

The underlying token is an instance of the DET token implemented in DoubleEntryPoint contract definition and the CryptoVault holds 100 units of it. Additionally the CryptoVault also holds 100 of LegacyToken LGT.

In this level you should figure out where the bug is in CryptoVault and protect it from being drained out of tokens.

The contract features a Forta contract where any user can register its own detection bot contract. Forta is a decentralized, community-based monitoring network to detect threats and anomalies on DeFi, NFT, governance, bridges and other Web3 systems as quickly as possible. Your job is to implement a detection bot and register it in the Forta contract. The bot's implementation will need to raise correct alerts to prevent potential attacks or bug exploits.

Things that might help:

  • How does a double entry point work for a token contract ?

Level author(s): OpenZeppelin, Forta

The goal of the challenge is to figure out where the bug is in CryptoVault and protect it from being drained out of tokens.

Study the contracts

This challenge seems to be a join venture between OpenZeppelin and Forta, a Real-time security & operational monitoring. As far as I can see, it's a challenge that try to explain to you how you should integrate the Forta system to monitor your contracts. Let's see how it goes.

From the description of the challenge (that tbh is not clear) we have two tokens: LegacyToken that as the name imply was a token that has been "deprecated" (does this happen in real life?) in favor of a new one called DoubleEntryPoint.

We also have a Vault called CryptoVault that has some functionalities (not relevant in the scope of the challenge) and offers a utility method called sweepToken(IERC20 token) that allows anyone to "sweep" (transfer) toward sweptTokensRecipient (an address defined at deployment time) tokens that have been sent to the Vault accidentally. The only check inside that function is that you cannot sweep the underlying token of the Vault.

At deployment time, we start with this configuration:

  • CryptoVault holds 100 DET (DoubleEntryToken)
  • CryptoVault holds 100 LGT (LegacyToken)

Our goal is to create a Forta DetectionBot that monitor the contracts and prevent an external attacker to drain the CryptoVault from draining tokens that should not be drained.

Let's review each contract and see if we can find some vector of attack.


contract LegacyToken is ERC20("LegacyToken", "LGT"), Ownable {
    DelegateERC20 public delegate;

    function mint(address to, uint256 amount) public onlyOwner {
        _mint(to, amount);

    function delegateToNewContract(DelegateERC20 newContract) public onlyOwner {
        delegate = newContract;

    function transfer(address to, uint256 value) public override returns (bool) {
        if (address(delegate) == address(0)) {
            return super.transfer(to, value);
        } else {
            return delegate.delegateTransfer(to, value, msg.sender);

It's an ERC20 token that inherit from Ownable. The owner of the contract can mint new tokens and update the value of the delegate variable by calling delegateToNewContract.

The strange part is inside the transfer function that has overridden the default one offered by the ERC20 standard.

If there's no delegate defined (address(delegate) == address(0)) the contract use the default logic of the ERC20 standard; otherwise it executes return delegate.delegateTransfer(to, value, msg.sender).

In this case, delegate is the DoubleEntryPoint contract itself. What does it mean? That when you perform a transfer on LegacyToken in reality it is forwarding the operation to execute DoubleEntryPoint.delegateTransfer. Let's switch to the other token code to see what's going on


contract DoubleEntryPoint is ERC20("DoubleEntryPointToken", "DET"), DelegateERC20, Ownable {
    address public cryptoVault;
    address public player;
    address public delegatedFrom;
    Forta public forta;

        address legacyToken,
        address vaultAddress,
        address fortaAddress,
        address playerAddress
    ) public {
        delegatedFrom = legacyToken;
        forta = Forta(fortaAddress);
        player = playerAddress;
        cryptoVault = vaultAddress;
        _mint(cryptoVault, 100 ether);

    modifier onlyDelegateFrom() {
        require(msg.sender == delegatedFrom, "Not legacy contract");

    modifier fortaNotify() {
        address detectionBot = address(forta.usersDetectionBots(player));

        // Cache old number of bot alerts
        uint256 previousValue = forta.botRaisedAlerts(detectionBot);

        // Notify Forta
        forta.notify(player, msg.data);

        // Continue execution

        // Check if alarms have been raised
        if (forta.botRaisedAlerts(detectionBot) > previousValue) revert("Alert has been triggered, reverting");

    function delegateTransfer(
        address to,
        uint256 value,
        address origSender
    ) public override onlyDelegateFrom fortaNotify returns (bool) {
        _transfer(origSender, to, value);
        return true;

The contract is a normal ERC20 token that inherit from both DelegateERC20 and Ownable. DelegateERC20 is an interface that forces the contract to implement the function delegateTransfer(address to, uint256 value, address origSender) function needed by LegacyToken token.

At constructor time, some state variable are set and 100 tokens are minted to the CryptoVault.

Before jumping into the delegateTransfer function, let's review the fortaNotify function modifier

modifier fortaNotify() {
    address detectionBot = address(forta.usersDetectionBots(player));

    // Cache old number of bot alerts
    uint256 previousValue = forta.botRaisedAlerts(detectionBot);

    // Notify Forta
    forta.notify(player, msg.data);

    // Continue execution

    // Check if alarms have been raised
    if (forta.botRaisedAlerts(detectionBot) > previousValue) revert("Alert has been triggered, reverting");

What this modifier does is to trigger some logic implemented by the Forta detection system. It stores locally the number of alerts raised before executing the code function and compare that number with the number of alerts raised after executing the body of the function that call the function modifier.

If the number of alerts has increased, the transaction will revert with the message "Alert has been triggered, reverting".

Let's review the important function that is also used by the LegacyToken token when the "legacy" LegacyToken.transfer is called.

function delegateTransfer(
    address to,
    uint256 value,
    address origSender
) public override onlyDelegateFrom fortaNotify returns (bool) {
    _transfer(origSender, to, value);
    return true;

If you look at the list of function modifiers, you see that

  • onlyDelegateFrom allows only the delegateFrom to call this function. In this case, only LegacyToken contract is allowed to call this function that otherwise would allow anyone to call _transfer (that is the low-level ERC20 transfer) from origSender
  • fortaNotify is a special function modifiers that trigger some specific Forta logic like we have seen before

The function itself is pretty simple, it calls the ERC20 internal implementation of the _transfer function. Bear in mind that _transfer only check that to and origSender are not address(0) and that origSender has enough tokens to transfer to to (it also checks under/overflow conditions) but it does not check that origSender is msg.sender or that the spender has enough allowance. That's why we have the onlyDelegateFrom modifier.


contract CryptoVault {
    address public sweptTokensRecipient;
    IERC20 public underlying;

    constructor(address recipient) public {
        sweptTokensRecipient = recipient;

    function setUnderlying(address latestToken) public {
        require(address(underlying) == address(0), "Already set");
        underlying = IERC20(latestToken);


    function sweepToken(IERC20 token) public {
        require(token != underlying, "Can't transfer underlying token");
        token.transfer(sweptTokensRecipient, token.balanceOf(address(this)));

The contract should implement the logic of a normal crypto Vault system. That part of the logic is not interesting for the scope of the challenge.

As any vault also CryptoVault has an underlying token that in this case is DoubleEntryPoint.

The sweepToken function, that can be called by anyone, allow the vault to transfer the whole vault balance of an arbitrary token (specified as an input parameter) to sweptTokensRecipient. The recipient should be secure, given that is initialized by the deployer of the contract at constructor time.

As you can see from the code, the only check that is done is to prevent the Vault to transfer the underlying token.

Find the exploit and prevent it by deploying a Forta DetectionBot

By combining all the information we have gathered, have you spot which is the bug we can exploit? To recap the current knowledge we have:

  • CryptoVault's underlying token is DoubleEntryPoint. The contract offers a sweepToken to transfers tokens in the Vault, but it prevents to sweep the DoubleEntryPoint token (because it's the underlying)
  • DoubleEntryPoint token is an ERC20 token that implements a custom delegateTransfer function callable only by LegacyToken token and that is monitored by Forta by executing the fortaNotify function modifier. The function allows the delegator to transfer an amount of token from origSpender to an arbitrary recipient
  • LegacyToken is an ERC20 token that has been "deprecated". When the transfer(address to, uint256 value) function is called the DoubleEntryPoint (the "new release" of the token) delegate.delegateTransfer(to, value, msg.sender) is called

Where's the problem? Because LegacyToken.transfer is "mirroring" DoubleEntryPoint.transfer this mean that when you ask you try to transfer 1 LegacyToken in reality you are transferring 1 DoubleEntryPoint token (to be able to do so you must have both of them in your balance)

The CryptoVault contains 100 of both tokens, but the sweepToken is preventing only the transfer of the underlying DoubleEntryPoint.

But by knowing how LegacyToken works, we can easily sweep all the DoubleEntryPoint tokens by calling CryptoVault.sweep(address(legacyTokenContract)).

Now that we know how to exploit it, how can we leverage the Forta integration to prevent the exploit and revert the transaction? We can build a contract that extends Forta IDetectionBot and plug it into the DoubleEntryPoint. By doing that, we should be able to prevent the exploit when the Vault sweepToken trigger the LegacyToken.transfer that will trigger the DoubleEntryPoint.delegateTransfer that will trigger (before executing the function code) the fortaNotify function modifier. Yes, I know the chain of execution is pretty deep, but bear with me, we got this!

The IDetectionBot contract interface has only one function signature function handleTransaction(address user, bytes calldata msgData) external; that will be called directly by the DoubleEntryPoint.delegateTransfer with these parameters forta.notify(player, msg.data).

Inside the DetectionBot we will raise an alert only if both of these conditions are true:

  • the original sender (who is calling DoubleEntryPoint.delegateTransfer) is CryptoVault
  • the signature of the calling function (first 4 bytes of the calldata) is equal to delegateTransfer signature

Let's extract the origSender value from msgData (remember that in this case, that parameter value is equal to msg.data). If you look at the Solidity Documentation for Block and Transaction Properties under the Special Variables and Functions section, you see that msg.data is a bytes calldata type of data that represents the complete calldata. What does it mean? That inside those bytes you will have both the function selector (4 bytes) and the function payload.

To extract the parameters, we can simply use the abi.decode like this (address to, uint256 value, address origSender) = abi.decode(msgData[4:], (address, uint256, address));. An important note: we are assuming that inside those bytes there are three values of those specific types in those specific orders. We are making a really hard assumption. That's why we need to combine this information with the fact that the function signature match the one from delegateTransfer that enforce these type and order requirements.

The second part is pretty easy, we just reconstruct the calling signature by merging the first 4 bytes of the msgData like this bytes memory callSig = abi.encodePacked(msgData[0], msgData[1], msgData[2], msgData[3]); and we compare it to what we know is the correct signature of delegateTransferabi.encodeWithSignature("delegateTransfer(address,uint256,address)")

Solution code

Let's see the whole code of the detection DetectionBot

contract DetectionBot is IDetectionBot {
    address private monitoredSource;
    bytes private monitoredSig;

    constructor(address _monitoredSource, bytes memory _monitoredSig) public {
        monitoredSource = _monitoredSource;
        monitoredSig = _monitoredSig;

    function handleTransaction(address user, bytes calldata msgData) external override {
        (address to, uint256 value, address origSender) = abi.decode(msgData[4:], (address, uint256, address));

        bytes memory callSig = abi.encodePacked(msgData[0], msgData[1], msgData[2], msgData[3]);

        if (origSender == monitoredSource && keccak256(callSig) == keccak256(monitoredSig)) {

Inside the constructor, the first parameter will be the source we want to monitor that in this case is the address of the CryptoVault and the second one will be the signature of the function we intend to monitor that in this case is abi.encodeWithSignature("delegateTransfer(address,uint256,address)").

Now we just need to deploy the bot passing the correct parameters and plug the bot inside the Forta system and solve the challenge. Let's go!

function exploitLevel() internal override {
    vm.startPrank(player, player);

    // Create and deploy the `DetectionBot` with the correct constructor paramter
    // The first one is the source we want to monitor
    // The second one is the signature of the function we want to match
    DetectionBot bot = new DetectionBot(

    // add the bot to the Forta network detection system that monitor the `DoubleEntryPoint` contract


You can read the full solution of the challenge opening DoubleEntryPoint.t.sol

Further reading


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